Primary Sources


DuBois, W.E.B. “The Negro Farmer.” In Negroes in the United States, by William Chamberlain Hunt, Walter Francis Wilcox, and W.E.B. DuBois. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1904.

Hall, Charles E., and Z. R. Pettet. Negro in the United States, 1920-1932. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1935.

Journal Articles

Bates, Thelma. “The Legal Status of the Negro in Florida.” The Florida Historical Quarterly 6, no. 3 (1928): 159–81.

Knauss, James Owen. “The Growth of Florida’s Election Laws.” The Florida Historical Quarterly 5, no. 1 (1926): 3–17.

Newspaper Articles

“65 Lynched in U.S. Last Year.” Baraboo Weekly. October 6, 1920.

“65 Lynched in U.S. Last Year.” The Evening Journal. October 15, 1920.

“A Severe Lesson to the Negroes.” The Ocala Evening Star. November 4, 1920.

“A Warning.” The Ocala Evening Star. November 8, 1920.

“An Open Letter to the Governor of the State of Florida.” National Republican. November 13, 1920.

“As Negro Houses Burned At Ocoee Great Mass of Ammunition Is Exploded.” Orlando Morning Sentinel. November 4, 1920.

“Between 30 and 60 Negroes Killed in Florida Election Day.” Baltimore Herald. November 7, 1920.

“Colored K. of P. Convention.” The Ocala Evening Star. May 18, 1920.

“Congress Denounces Negro League’s Leaders.” New York Tribune. January 6, 1921.

“Congressman Assails Motives of Pro Negro Advancement Society.” Daily Ardmoreite. January 7, 1921.

“Congressmen Will Refute the Aspersions Cast on State Before Committee.” Lakeland Evening Telegram. December 31, 1920.

“Demand Election Inquiry.” The Bystander. December 9, 1920.

“Election Race Riot Toll in Florida Is 8.” Indiana Daily Times. November 4, 1920.

“Fatalities in Election Riot at Ocoee, Fla.” Norwich Bulletin. November 4, 1920.

“Federal Investigation of Lynching Demanded.” Odgen Standard. November 6, 1920.

“Former Service Men Patrol Towns to Prevent Riots.” Grand Forks Herald. November 4, 1920.

“Grand Chancellor Andrews’ Official Visits.” The Florida Metropolis. April 1, 1920. Provided by the George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida.

“Herbert Philips Will Make a Report on the Killing Nov. 2nd of Negroes at Ocoee.” The Ocala Evening Star. December 17, 1920.

“Investigate Election Riots Staged in Florida.” Richmond Palladium. December 18, 1920.

“K.P. Convention Here Next Week.” Tallahassee Democrat. May 14, 1915.

“May Investigate Burning Negroes Election Day.” Evening Capital. November 5, 1920.

“N.A.A.C.P. Investigates Claims 30 Negroes Slain in Florida.” The Dallas Express. January 1, 1921.

“Negro at Orlando Taken from Police and Whipped.” Lakeland Evening Telegram. July 23, 1920.

“Negro K. of P. Meeting Here.” The Tampa Times. May 20, 1919.

“Negro Pythians Bring Convention to Close.” Orlando Evening Star. May 24, 1918.

“Negroes Whipped by Orlando Mob.” Pensacola Journal. July 24, 1921.

“Negroes Leave Ocoee.” Florida Times-Union. November 5, 1920.

“Negroes Quit Ocoee.” Bisbee Daily. November 5, 1920.

“News of the Week Told in Paragraphs.” The Ocala Banner. November 12, 1920.

“News of the Week Told in Paragraphs.” The Ocala Banner. December 24, 1920.

“Ocoee Claims 2 White Victims.” Orlando Morning Sentinel. November 3, 1920.

“Ocoee Riot to Be Probed by Federal District Atty.” Lakeland Evening Telegram. December 17, 1920.

“Outbreak at Ocoee.” The Ocala Banner. November 3, 1920.

“Practically All Negroes Have Left Ocoee, Fla.” Norwich Bulletin. November 5, 1920.

“Probe into Killing Od 20 Negroes Begun.” Washington Herald. December 18, 1920.

“Race Riot in Orange County.” Florida Times-Union. November 3, 1920.

“Race Riots Near [Sic]: Two White Men Dead; Negro Hanged; Others Killed; Negro Huts Burned.” The Daytona Daily News. November 3, 1920.

“Riot in Florida – Three Shot – Many Burned – Carried Guns to Polls.” Keowee Courier. November 10, 1920.

“Rioting New Orlando Results in the Death of Two Whites, Many Negroes.” Sanford Herald. November 4, 1920.

“Says 30 Negroes Were Slain in Florida on Election Day.” New York Post. December 15, 1920.

“Service Men as Riot Guards.” Bridgeport Times. November 4, 1920.

“Service Men Guard Streets of Orlando.” The Richmond Palladium. November 4, 1920.

“Small Boy Hid Under Store at Ocoee 48 Hours.” Florida Times-Union. November 6, 1920.

“Southern Solons to Prove Charges of Negroes False.” Richmond Times Dispatch. October 5, 1920.

“Southern Congressmen Roused by Insulting Reference to South.” Lakeland Evening Telegram. December 30, 1920.

“Southern Election Riots.” Daily Gate City. November 4, 1920.

“State Representative From Florida Declares That Qualified Negroes Were Allowed to Vote, Denounces N.A.A.C.P.” The Dallas Express. October 22, 1921.

“Steady, Men.” Sanford Herald. November 5, 1920.

“To Probe Race Troubles.” Evening Times. December 17, 1920.

“Trying to Cut Congressional Representation.” The Richmond Planet. October 8, 1921.

“Two White Men and Eight Negroes Slain in Election Clash.” News Scimitar. November 4, 1920.

“Two Whites, 6 Negroes Slain in Florida Riot.” New York Tribune. November 4, 1920.

“U.S. Inquiry Ordered Into Election Riots in Florida.” New York Tribune. December 18, 1920.

“U.S. Will Inquire Into Election Riots: Florida Official Instructed in Death of Negroes at Ocoee.” Evening Star. December 18, 1920.

“Woman Escaped from Florida Mob but Rest of Family Died.” New York Age. December 18, 1920.

Other Primary Sources

Green, S.W., Joseph L. Jones, and E.A. Williams. History and Manual of the Colored Knights of Pythias. Nashville: National Baptist Publishing Board, 1917.

Johnson, Rusty, Larry Brison, Sr., Rosemary Wilsen, Richer Firstner, Robert D. Frank, and George Oliver, III. “An Official Formal Apology.” City Commission of the City of Ocoee. November 8, 2020.

Johnson, Rusty. “Ocoee City Government Official Proclamation.” City Commission of the City of Ocoee. November 20, 2018.

Ocoee, FL | Official Website.

Secondary Sources


Allen, James, Hilton Als, John Lewis, and Leon F. Litwick. Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photography in America. Santa Fe, New Mexico: Twin Palms, 2005.

Anderson, Carol. One Person, No Vote: How Voter Suppression Is Destroying Our Democracy. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2019.

———. White Rage: The Unspoken Truth of Our Racial Divide. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, n.d.

Ayers, Edward. The Promise of the New South: Life After Reconstruction. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Bailey, A.K., and S.E. Tolnay. Lynched: The Victims of Southern Mob Violence. North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 2015.

Bell, Gladys Frank. Visions Through My Father’s Eyes. Outskirts Press, 2015.

Berman, Ari. Give Us the Ballot: The Modern Struggle for Voting Rights in America. New York: Picador/Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2016.

Blackmon, Douglas. Slavery by Another Name: The Re-Establishment of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II. New York: Anchor Books, 2008.

Blight, David W. Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.

Carter, Dan T. From George Wallace to Newt Gingrich: Race in the Conservative Counterculture, 1963-1994. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1996.

Cocelski, David S., and Timothy B. Tyson, eds. Democracy Betrayed: The Wilmington Race Riot and Its Legacy. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

D’Orso, Michael. Like Judgment Day: The Ruin and Redemption of a Town Called Rosewood. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1996.

Dray, Philip. At the Hands of Persons Unknown: The Lynching of Black America. New York: Modern Library, 2003.

DuBois, W.E.B. “The Negro Farmer.” In Negroes in the United States, by William Chamberlain Hunt, Walter Francis Wilcox, and W.E.B. DuBois. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1904.

Dunn, Marvin. The Beast In Florida: A History of Anti-Black Violence. Florida: University of Florida Press, 2013.

———. The History of Florida: Through Black Eyes. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2016.

Equal Justice Initiative. Lynching in America: Confronting the Legacy of Racial Terror. 3rd ed. Equal Justice Initiative, 2015.

Foner, Eric. Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution 1863-1877. New York: Harper & Row, 1988.

Gates, Henry Louis Jr. Stony the Road: Reconstruction, White Supremacy, and the Rise of Jim Crow. New York: Penguin Press, 2019.

Giddings, Paula J. Ida: A Sword Among Lions: Ida B. Wells and the Campaign Against Lynchings. California: Amistad Publishing, 2008.

Gilmore, Glenda Elizabeth. Gender & Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Gilroy, Paul. The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993.

Ginzburg, Ralph. 100 Years of Lynching. Baltimore, Maryland: Black Classic Press, 1996.

Green, Ben, Before His Time: The Untold Story of Harry T. Moore, America’s First Civil Rights Martyr. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1999.

Hall, Charles E., and Z. R. Pettet. Negro in the United States, 1920-1932. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1935.

Hobbs, Tameka Bradley. Democracy Abroad, Lynching at Home: Racial Violence in Florida. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida, 2015.

Ifill, Sherrilyn A. On the Courthouse Lawn: Confronting the Legacy of Lynching in the Twenty-First Century. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2007.

Jaspin, Elliot. Buried in the Bitter Waters: The Hidden History of Racial Cleansing in America. New York: Basic Books, 2007.

Jensen, Joan M. The Price of Vigilance. New York: Rand McNally & Company, 1968.

Jones, Doug. Bending Toward Justice: The Birmingham Church Bombing That Changed the Course of Civil Rights. New York: All Point Books, 2019.

Jones, Martha. Birthright Citizens: A History of Race and Rights in Antebellum America. Studies in Legal History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018.

Keith, Jeanette, Rich Man’s War, Poor Man’s Fight: Race, Class, and Power in the Rural South during the First World War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.

Key, V. O.  Southern Politics in State and Nation. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1949.

Kornweibel Jr, Theodore. “Investigate Everything”: Federal Efforts to Compel Black Loyalty during World War I. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2002.

Kousser, J. Morgan. The Shaping of Southern Politics: Suffrage Restriction and the Establishment of the One-Party South, 1880-1910. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974.

Lassiter, Matthew D. The Silent Majority: Suburban Politics in the Sunbelt South. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006.

Lawson, Steven F. Running for Freedom: Civil Rights and Black Politics in America Since 1941. 4th ed. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014.

Lichtenstein, Alex. Twice the Work of Free Labor: The Political Economy of Convict Labor in the New South. London: Verso, 1996.

Litwack, Leon F. “The Birth of a Nation.” In Past Imperfect: History According to the Movies, ed. by Mark C. Carnes. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1995.

MacManus, Susan, Tyler Myers, and Lauren Kay. Florida’s Minority Trailblazers: The Men and Women Who Changed the Face of Florida Government. Florida Government and Politics. Florida: University Press of Florida, 2016.

Mancini, Matthew. One Dies, Get Another: Convict Leasing in the American South, 1866-1928. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1996.

Maraniss, Andrew. Strong Inside: Perry Wallace and the Collision of Race and Sports in the South. Nashville, Tennessee: Vanderbilt University Press, 2014.

Marchand, Roland. Advertising the American Dream: Making Way for Modernity, 1920-1940. Berkley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1985.

May, Gary. Bending Toward Justice: The Voting Rights Act and the Transformation of American Democracy. New York: Basic Books, 2013.

McCarthy, Kevin M. African American Sites in Florida. Sarasota, FL: Pineapple Press, 2019.

Miller, Vivien M. Crime, Sexual Violence, and Clemency: Florida’s Pardon Board and Penal System in the Progressive Era. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2000.

Newton, Michael. The Invisible Empire: The Ku Klux Klan in Florida. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2001.

O’Barr, William M. Culture and the Ad: Exploring Otherness in the World of Advertising. Boulder, San Francisco, Oxford: Westview Press, 1994.

Ore, Ersula J. Lynching: Violence, Rhetoric, and American Identity. Race, Rhetoric, and Media. Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi, 2011.

Ortiz, Paul. Emancipation Betrayed: The Hidden History of Black Organizing and White Violence in Florida from Reconstruction to the Bloody Election of 1920. Berkeley: University Press of California, 2005.

Ortiz, Paul. “Eat Your Bread without Butter, but Pay Your Poll Tax!” In Time Longer Than Rope: A Century of African American Activism, 1850-1950, eds., Charles M. Payne and Adam Green. New York: New York University Press, 2003.

Perman, Michael. Struggle for Mastery: Disfranchisement in the South, 1888-1908. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

Phillips, Patrick. Blood at the Root: A Racial Cleansing in America. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2017.

Schein, Richard H., ed. Landscape and Race in the United States. New York and London: Routledge, 2006.

Shofner, Jerrell H. History of Apopka and Northwest Orange County, Florida. Florida: Apopka Historical Society, 1982.

Sims, Angela D. Ethical Complications of Lynchings: Ida B. Wells’s Interrogation of American Terror. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

———. Lynched: The Power of Memory in a Culture of Terror. Texas: Baylor University Press, 2016.

Stevenson, Bryan. Just Mercy: A Story of Justice and Redemption. United Kingdom: Oneworld Publications, 2015.

Tolnay, Stewart, and E.M. Beck. A Festival of Violence: An Analysis of Southern Lynchings, 1882-1930. Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1995.

Vandiver, Margaret. Lethal Punishment: Lynchings and Legal Executions in the South. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, n.d.

Waldrep, Christopher. African Americans Confront Lynching: Strategies of Resistance from the Civil War to the Civil Rights Era. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2009.

———. Lynching in America: A History in Documents. New York: New York University Press, 2006.

Wallis, Jim. America’s Original Sin: Racism, White Privilege, and the Bridge to a New America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.

Watts, Jill. The Black Cabinet: The Untold Story of African Americans and Politics During the Age of Roosevelt. New York: Grove Press, 2020.

White, Walter. Rope and Faggot: A Biography of Judge Lynch. Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 2002.

Williams, Chad L. Torchbearers of Democracy: African American Soldiers in World War I Era. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010.

Wood, Amy Louise. Lynching and Spectacle: Witnessing Racial Violence in America, 1890-1940. North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 2011.

Woodward, C. Vann.  Origins of the New South, 1877-1913. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1951, 1987.

Zucchino, David. Wilmington’s Lie: The Murderous Coup of 1898 and the Rise of White Supremacy. New York: Grove Press, 2021.

Digital Archives

Blackman, William Fremont. (1927). “History of Orange County Florida Narrative and Biographical.” E.O. Painter Printing Co.

Block, Herbert, Artist. Continuation of a march / Herblock. (1965). Photograph.

Currier & Ives. The first colored senator and representatives – in the 41st and 42nd Congress of the United States. United States, 1872. New York: Published by Currier & Ives. Photograph.

Dickinson, Martin F. and Lucy B. Wayne. (January 26, 2003). “Limited Review of Possible Cemetery Indications, Forest Ridge PUD, Orange County, Florida.” SOUTHARC. Inc.

“Florida Deaths, 1877-1939.” Database with images, FamilySearch. Entry for Jannie Hightower in 1926. Accessed April 19, 2021.

“Florida Deaths, 1877-1939.” Database with images, FamilySearch. Entry for Valentine Hightower in 1932. Accessed April 19, 2021.

“Florida Marriages, 1837-1974.” Database, FamilySearch. Entry for V.T. Hightower on April 1, 1893. Accessed April 19, 2021.

Florida Memory, State Library and Archives of Florida. Includes photographs, video, audio, collections, exhibits, and classroom materials.

“Florida Racial Violence.” (Thursday, June 23, 2011). Footprints in the Dust.

“Florida State Census, 1885.” Database with images, FamilySearch. Entry for Valentine Hightower in the house of BM Sims. NARA microfilm M845. Accessed April 19, 2021.

Joel Buchanan Archive of African American Oral History.

Lewis, Jeffrey, Brandon DeVine, and Lincoln Pritcher with Kenneth C. Martis. “United States Congressional District Shapefiles.” UCLA, 2013.

“Lynching in America: A Community Remembrance Project.” Accessed September 2017. Equal Justice Initiative

Mahony, Felix, Artist. Your last chance to register. It’s so easy and a great privilege. (1908). Photograph.

Monroe and Florence Work Today.

Nast, Thomas. “One Vote Less.” Presidential Campaigns: A Cartoon History, 1789-1976. Accessed September 28, 2021.

Nast, Thomas. “Skeleton ‘solid Southern shotgun’ holding shotgun at polls, to prevent African Americans from voting, 1879.” Harper’s Weekly. October 18, 1879, p. 1.

Nast, Thomas. “This is a white man’s government.” Harper’s Weekly. September 5, 1868, p. 568.

Okamoto, Yoichi R. “Johnson signs Voting Rights Act.” Digital Public Library of America.

Onion, Rebecca. (July 6, 2015). “Interactive Map Catalogs a History of Collective Violence Against Black Communities.” SLATE.

Rajtar, Steve. (1999). “Ocoee Historical Trail.”

Road-building by a chain gang. 1925. State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory. <>, accessed 21 September 2021.

The election–At the polls / W.J.H. (1857). Photograph.

“The Georgetown Election – The Negro at the Ballot Box.” Harper’s Weekly, March 16, 1867, p. 172.

Thirteenth Census of the United States taken in the year 1910, Volume 1, Population 1910: General Report and Analysis. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1915.

“United States Census, 1900.” Database with images, FamilySearch. Entry for Valentine Hightower in Precincts 10-11, Ocoee, Apopka. NARA microfilm T623. Accessed April 19, 2021.

“United States Census, 1910.” Database with images, FamilySearch. Entry for Valentine Hightower in Ocoee. NARA microfilm T624. Accessed April 19, 2021.

“United States Census, 1920.” Database with images, FamilySearch. Entry for Valentine Hightower in Ocoee. NARA microfilm T625. Accessed April 19, 2021.

U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Ocoee city, Florida.

“Wilmington, N.C. race riot, 1898.” The Daily Record. November 26, 1898. Courtesy of Library of Congress.

Documentaries and Digital Media

Cassanello, Robert, Lisa Mills, and Kathy Parry. Hymns of Three Cities, 2015.

Murphy, Michael. “Architecture That’s Built to Heal.” TED Talk, February 2016.’s_built_to_heal.

“Remembering the Victims of the Ocoee Massacre.” Intersections. Orlando, Florida: 90.7 WMFE, March 19, 2019.

Stevenson, Bryan. “We Need to Talk About an Injustice.” TED Talk, March 2012.

White, Bianca, and Sandra Krasa. Ocoee: Legacy of the Election Day Massacre. DVD. Florida: Wise Eye Media, Inc., 2008.

Journal Articles

Armstead, Cathleen L. “Competing Narratives, Fragmented Community. Stories of the Ocoee Massacre of 1920.” Selected Annual Proceeding of the Florida Conference of Historians. Annual Meeting 2000/2001. Volumes 8/9 (February 2002): 57. 

Ball, Howard. “Racial Vote Dilution: Impact of the Reagan DOJ and the Burger Court on the Voting Rights Act.” Publius 16, no. 4 (1986): 29-48. Accessed July 22, 2021. doi:10.2307/3330157.

Byrne, Jason. “Ocoee on Fire: The 1920 Election Day Massacre.” Medium, November 23, 2014. Accessed April 19, 2021.

Cassanello, Robert. “The Right to Vote and the Long Nineteenth Century in Florida.” The Florida Historical Quarterly 95, no. 2 (2016): 194–220.

Chalmers, David. “The Ku Klux Klan in the Sunshine State: The 1920’s.” The Florida Historical Quarterly 42, no. 3 (1964): 209–15.

Colbourn, David. “Rosewood and America in the Early Twentieth Century.” The Florida Historical Quarterly 76, no. 2 (1997): 175–92.

Danese, Tracey E. “Disfranchisement, Women’s Suffrage and the Failure of the Florida Grandfather Clause.” The Florida Historical Quarterly 74, no. 2 (1995): 117–31.

Emmons, Caroline. “‘Somebody Has Got to Do That Work:’ Harry T. Moore and the Struggle for African-American Voting Rights in Florida.” The Journal of Negro History 82, no. 2 (1997): 232–43.

Fussell, Melissa. “Dead Men Bring No Claims: How Takings Claims Can Provide Redress for Real Property Owning Victims of Jim Crow Race Riots.” William and Mary Law Review 57, no. 5 (2016): 1913.

Gordon, Fon L. “Early Motoring in Florida: Making Car Culture and Race in the New South, 1903-1943.” Florida Historical Quarterly 95, no. 4 (Spring 2017), 517-537.

Green, Elna C. “Hidden in Plain View: Eugene Poulnot and the History of Southern Radicalism.” The Florida Historical Quarterly 84, no. 3 (2006): 349–82.

Harrison, Jonathon. “The Rise of Jim Crow in Fort Myers, 1885-1930.” The Florida Historical Quarterly 94, no. 1 (2015): 40–67.

Hoffmann, Carlee. “A Perfect Storm: The Ocoee Riot of 1920.” The Florida Historical Quarterly 93, no. 1 (2014): 24–43.

Iorio, Pam. “Colorless Primaries: Tampa’s White Municipal Party.” The Florida Historical Quarterly 79, no. 3 (2001): 297–318.

Jackson, Jr., David H. “Booker T. Washington’s Tour of the Sunshine State, March 1912.” The Florida Historical Quarterly 81, no. 3 (2003): 254–78.

Jackson, Jr., David H., and Kimberlyn M. Elliott. “African Americans in Florida, 1870-1920: A Historical Essay.” The Florida Historical Quarterly 96, no. 2 (2016): 152–93.

Jennings, Warren A. “Sidney J. Catts and the Democratic Primary of 1920.” The Florida Historical Quarterly 39, no. 3 (1961): 203–20.

Jones, Maxine D. “The Rosewood Massacre and the Women Who Survived It.” The Florida Historical Quarterly 76, no. 2 (1997): 193–208.

———. “‘Without Compromise or Fear’: Florida’s African American Female Activists.” The Florida Historical Quarterly 77, no. 4 (1999): 475–502.

Lempel, Leonard R. “The Mayor’s ‘Henchmen and Henchwomen, Both White and Colored’: Edward H. Armstrong and the Politics of Race in Daytona Beach, 1900-1940.” The Florida Historical Quarterly 79, no. 3 (2001): 267–96.

Mormino, Gary R. “Florida Slave Narratives.” The Florida Historical Quarterly 66, no. 4 (1988): 399–419.

O’Rourke, Timothy G. Constitutional and Statutory Challenges to Local At-Large Elections, 17 U. Rich. L. Rev. 39 (1982).
Available at:

Ostrow, Ashira Pelman. “One Person, One Weighted Vote.” Florida Law Review 68, no. 6 (November 2016): 1-43.

Peek, Ralph F. “Election of 1870 and the End of Reconstruction in Florida.” The Florida Historical Quarterly 45, no. 4 (1967): 352–68.

Pruitt, Paul M. “Historic Notes and Documents: Judge Henry D. Clayton and ‘A Klansman’: A Revealing Exchange of Views.” The Florida Historical Quarterly 81, no. 3 (2003): 323–47.

Rivers, Larry Eugene, and Canter Brown. “’A Monument to the Progress of the Race’: The Intellectual and Political Origins of the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, 1865-1887.” The Florida Historical Quarterly 85, no. 1 (2006): 1–41.

Sanders, Hank, and Frances M. Beal. “Black Scholar Interview with Hank Sanders: DEFENDING VOTING RIGHTS IN THE ALABAMA BLACK BELT.” The Black Scholar 17, no. 3 (1986): 25-34. Accessed July 22, 2021.

Sellers, Sean and Gred Asbed. “The History and Evolution of Forced Labor in Florida Agriculture.” Race/Ethnicity: Multidisciplinary Global Contexts 5, no. 1 (Autumn 2011): 29-49.

Shofner, Jerrell H. “Custom, Law, and History: The Enduring Influence of Florida’s ‘Black Code’.” The Florida Historical Quarterly 55, no. 3 (1977): 277–98.

———. “Fraud and Intimidation in the Florida Election of 1876.” The Florida Historical Quarterly 42, no. 4 (1964): 321–30.

———. “The Labor League of Jacksonville: A Negro Union and White Strikebreakers.” Florida Historical Quarterly 50, no. 3 (January 1973) 278-282.

Vandiver, Margaret. “Florida Shame: The Lake City Lynching of 1911.” Criminal Law Bulletin 50, no. 4 (2014): 831–49.

Wilkerson-Freeman, Sarah. “The Second Battle for Woman Suffrage: Alabama White Women, the Poll Tax, and V. O. Key’s Master Narrative of Southern Politics.” Journal of Southern History 68, no. 2 (May 2002): 333-374.

Magazine Articles

Asip-Kneitschel, Stacey. “NYC purged 200,000 voters in 2016. It wasn’t a mistake.” City and State NY, November 8, 2018.

Couric, Katie. “The Blood of Lynching Victims Is in This Soil.” National Geographic, April 2018.

First-Arai, Leanna. “How Soil Acts as a Living Witness to Racial Violence.” Yes! Magazine, February 27, 2019.

Herring, Troy. “A Century Removed: Truth and Reconciliation of the 1920 Ocoee Massacre.” Orange Observer, October 28, 2020. Accessed April 19, 2021.

Hobbs, Allyson, and Nell Freudenberger. “A Visit to Montgomery’s Legacy Museum.” The New Yorker, July 17, 2018.

Hurston, Zora Neale. “The Ocoee Riot.” Essence, February 1989.

Ifill, Sherrilyn A. “How the South Memorializes- and Forgets- It’s History of Lynching.” Time, August 28, 2018.

Maraniss, Andrew. “Legacy of Bloody Election Day Lingers in Ocoee, Florida.” The Undefeated, November 4, 2016.

Rossiter, Jenna. “Digging up America’s Racist Past: UP Students Experience History of Social Justice and Civil Rights.” Up Beacon (University of Portland), n.d.

Shaer, Matthew. “A New Memorial Remembers the Thousands of African-Americans Who Were Lynched.” The Atlantic, March 2018.

Smart-Grosvenor, Vertamae. “The Ocoee Riot.” Essence, February 1989.

Smith, Jamil. “On a Hill in Alabama, the Lynched Haunt Us.” Rolling Stone, May 16, 2018.

Toobin, Jeffrey. “The Legacy of Lynching, On Death Row.” The New Yorker, August 22, 2016.

Ware, Adam. “’The Conflicting Testimony Continues:’ The Ocoee Riot, 95 Years Later.” Reflections, Spring 2015.

Articles from Newspapers

Baquero, Gabby. “Ocoee Debates Markers Memorializing 1920 Election Day Massacre.” West Orange Times & Observer. September 6, 2017.

Byrne, Jason. “Ocoee On Fire: The 1920 Election Day Massacre.” Florida History. November 23, 2014.

Clark, Jim. “Lynching: Florida’s Brutal Distinction.” Orlando Sentinel. March 1993.

Cotter, Holland. “Remembering Lynching’s Toll.” New York Times. June 3, 2018.

Dickinson, Joy Wallace. “Film Airs Ocoee’s Riot and Its Legacy.” Orlando Sentinel. November 10, 2002.

———. “Remembering Day of Darkness.” Orlando Sentinel. November 3, 2002.

Ericson, Jr., Edward. “Dead Wrong.” Orlando Weekly. October 1, 1998.

Fallstrom, Jerry. “Victims of Ocoee Violence Have Little Hope of Payment.” Orlando Sentinel. March 27, 1994.

Furman, Anna. “How Art Is Being Used to Explore America’s Shameful Legacy of Lynching.” The Guardian. July 13, 2017.

Gillespie, Ryan. “Marker Acknowledging Ocoee Massacre, July Perry’s Lynching, Planned in Orlando.” Orlando Sentinel. April 8, 2019.

Hamburg, Jay. “Ocoee Living Down Past 66 Years After Race Riot.” Orlando Sentinel. September 7, 1986.

Herring, Troy. “A Century Removed: Truth and Reconciliation of the 1920 Ocoee Massacre.” Orange Observer. October 28, 2020. Accessed April 19, 2021.

Hudak, Stephen. “Dawn of a New Day. Ocoee City Hall Proclamation.” Orlando Sentinel. November 20, 2018.

———. “Ocoee Approves Marker for Election Day Massacre.” Orlando Sentinel. April 4, 2019.

———. “Ocoee Renounces Racist Past, Promises Harmony and Justice.” Orlando Sentinel. November 22, 2018.

———. “Ocoee Struggles with Racial Legacy as National Memorial Recognizing Lynching Victims Opens.” Orlando Sentinel. April 21, 2018.

———. “Recognition of Injustice.” Orlando Sentinel. June 22, 2019.

Kunerth, Jeff. “Report: Orange County Ranks 6th in Lynchings from 1877-1950.” Orlando Sentinel. February 11, 2015.

Laerty, James. “How White Americans Used Lynchings to Terrorize and Control Black People.” The Guardian. April 26, 2018.

Lee, Curtis. “‘Capital Punishment Is the Stepchild of Lynching.’ Here’s What Bryan Stevenson Hopes to Address with a Memorial Honoring Black People Who Were Killed.” Los Angeles Times. April 26, 2018.

Levin, Sam. “Lynching Memorial Leaves Some Quietly Seething: ‘Let Sleeping Dogs Lie.” The Guardian. April 28, 2019.

Luscombe, Richard. “‘The Sunrise City’: Florida Community Reconciles with History of 1920s Race Riot.” The Guardian. n.d.

Martin, Trish. “Allen Franks Family Home Burned in the 1920 Riot.” Orlando Sentinel. February 21, 1993.

McLeod, Michael. “Families Can’t Forget.” Orlando Sentinel. March 11, 2001.

Mezzei, Patricia. “Ex-Felons in Florida Must Pay Fines Before Voting, Appeals Court Rules.” New York Times. September 11, 2020.

Nichols, Mark. “Closed voting sites hit minority counties harder for busy mid-term elections.” USA Today. October 30, 2018.

Pear, Robert. “Reagan Backs Voting Rights Act But Wants to Ease Requirements.” New York Times. November 7, 1981. Accessed July 22, 2021.

Quintana, Craig. “Riot Still Painful for Ocoee.” Orlando Sentinel. November 2, 1998.

Robertson, Campbell. “A Lynching Memorial Is Opening. The Country Has Never Seen Anything Like It.” The New York Times. April 25, 2018.

Samsock, Karen. “Hurston’s Vivid Tale of Riot Comes Alive in Magazine.” Orlando Sentinel. February 21, 1989.

Seguin, Charles. “How Northern Newspapers Covered Lynchings.” The New York Times. May 5, 2018.

Staples, Brent. “When Newspapers Justified Lynching.” The New York Times. May 5, 2018.

Stolberg, Cheryl Gay, and Caitlin Dickerson. “Hangman’s Noose, Symbol of Racial Animus, Keeps Cropping Up.” The New York Times. July 5, 2017.

Toohey, Grace. “New Florida Law to Recognize, Teach 1920 Ocoee Massacre.” Orlando Sentinel. June 25, 2020.

Weiner, Rachel. “Florida early voting cuts survive.” Washington Post. September 24, 2012.

Whitesides, John, and Julia Harte. “Explainer: Why vote by mail triggered a partisan battle ahead of November’s election.” Reuters. April 14, 2020.

Williams, Charley. “Let Ocoee Massacre Marker Provide a Learning Opportunity.” Orlando Sentinel. June 21, 2019.

Yee, Vivian. “Routine Voter Purge is Cited in Brooklyn Election Trouble.” New York Times. April 22, 2016.

Online Articles

“The ACLU and Citizens United.” ACLU, 2021.

Baker v. Carr.

“Block the Vote: How Politicians are Trying to Block Voters from the Ballot Box.” ACLU, August 18, 2021.

Byrne, Jason. “Ocoee on Fire: The 1920 Election Day Massacre.” Medium, November 23, 2014. Accessed April 19, 2021.

“Cutting Early Voting is Voter Suppression.” ACLU, 2021.

Evenwel v. Abbott.

“Federal Court Rules Florida Law That Undermined Voting Rights Restoration is Unconstitutional.” ACLU, May 24, 2020.

Johnson, Theodore R. “The New Voter Suppression.” Brennan Center for Justice, January 16, 2020.

Lau, Tim. “Citizens United Explained.” Brennan Center for Justice, December 12, 2019.

“Litigation to Protect Amendment 4 in Florida.” Brennan Center for Justice, September 11, 2020.

Mobile v. Bolden, 446 U.S. 55 (1980).

Ortiz, Paul. “Ocoee, Florida: Remembering ‘the Single Bloodiest Day in Modern U.S. Political History’.” Facing South (Blog), May 14, 2010.

Raymond, Jonathan. “Arguments in suit over Florida ‘poll tax’ law to be heard at 11th Circuit in Atlanta today.” 11 Alive, July 22, 2021.

Reynolds v. Sims.

“The Florida Senate.” Redistricting – The Florida Senate. Accessed July 26, 2021.

Oral Histories

Cravero, Geoffrey and Bracy, Randolph. Oral History of Randolph Bracy, September 14, 2021.

Cravero, Geoffrey and Hickey, Robert. Oral History of Robert Hickey, February 26, 2019.

Gordon, Fon and Thompson, Geraldine. Oral History of Geraldine Thompson, October 26, 2021.

Rivera, Tiffany and Oliver, George. Oral History of George Oliver, September 21, 2021.

Podcasts and Radio Segments

Clark, Jim. “Harry T. Moore: An Interview with Dr. Jim Clark.” RICHES Podcast Documentaries, n.d.

Clark, Jim, and Ben Green. “Harry T. Moore, Part 1.” RICHES Podcast Documentaries, n.d.

Clark, Jim, Ben Green, Juanita Barton, Bill Gary, Oscar Dickson, and Althemese Barnes. “Harry T. Moore, Part 2.” RICHES Podcast Documentaries, n.d.

Cravero, Geoffrey. “An Interview with Paul Ortiz, Part 1.” RICHES Podcast Documentaries, n.d.

———. “An Interview with Paul Ortiz, Part 2.” RICHES Podcast Documentaries, n.d.

Firpo, Julio. “Legacy of the Ocoee Riot.” RICHES Podcast Documentaries, n.d.

Kelley, Katie. “Icons of Hate.” A History of Central Florida, n.d.

Salzman, Jeff. “Burning the Karmas of Jim Crow; The Power of America’s New Peace and Justice Memorial.” The Daily Evolver, n.d.

Stapleton, Kevin. “Jim Crow Signs,” n.d.

Theses and Dissertations

Dabbs, Jr., Lester. “A Report of the Circumstances and Events of the Race Riot on November 2, 1920 in Ocoee, Florida.” Stetson University, 1969.

Hershaw, Paul. “Ocoee and Its Pioneers: An Account of the Settlement and Growth of Ocoee, Florida 1857-1928.” University of Central Florida, 1991.

Padgett, James Andrew. “Rebuilt and Remade: The Florida Citrus Industry, 1909-1939.” MA Thesis, University of Central Florida. 2018.

Parrish, Vernon E. “Bloodshed, The Price of History.” Student Term Paper. University of Florida, 1949.

Parry, Katherine. “Constructing African American Histories in Central Florida.” University of Central Florida, 2008.